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您所在的位置:济南朗阁 > 名师访谈 > 庖丁解牛之list of headings——主题句不明怎么办?

庖丁解牛之list of headings——主题句不明怎么办?

新闻文章排行榜>> 丨2015-10-23 作者:朗阁 点击数:

核心提示:这次朗阁海外考试研究中心的李园老师给大家带来了庖丁解牛系列的另一篇文章——主题句不明怎么办?赶紧学起来~

  朗阁海外考试研究中心 李园

  亲爱的小烤鸭,在做List of headings的过程中,你有没有遇见以下情况?

  一、段落中找不到主题句。

  二、主题句看得懂,但是备选标题没有合适的选项。

  三、一个段落中主题句有生词看不懂。

  这个时候我们上篇讲的主题句破解法就不太好用了。不过没关系,朗阁专家还有第二招——细节词破解法。因为主题句一般用词较难,或者表达较为概括,会出现理解困难的情况。那我们就看细节信息,因为跟主题句相比,细节信息多数是举例说明来证明观点,例子用词多是关于人、物、时间、地点相关的词,比较好理解。

  (一)细节词破解法操作指南

  细节词破解法:浏览细节内容,逆向思维命名标题

  具体步骤:先读懂细节内容,然后逆向思维对细节进行概括,讲概括出的标题与备选标题匹配,寻找合适答案。

  温馨小贴士:在抓细节的过程中只要需要抓细节的句子主干,即主谓宾,弄懂例子大体意思即可,不需要读懂每一个词。)

  (二)真题操练

  1)没有主题句

  C6Test4 Passage 1

  A A few months ago Kim Schaefer, sales representative of a major global pharmaceutical company, walked into a medical center in New York to bring information and free samples of her company’s latest products. The day she was lucky – a doctor was available to see her. ‘ The last rep offered me a trip to Florida. What do you have?’ the physician asked. He was only half joking.文章开头第一段,全段都是细节描述,没有主题句,对细节概括我们得出A段讲述了一个医药公司代表给医生送礼的例子。

  所选标题:v An example of what doctors expect from drug companies(标题中的example是对应细节内容的概括)

  2)主题句明确,但无备选标题与主题句匹配

  C7Test1Passage2

  C Yet there is a dark side to this picture: despite our progress, half of the world’s population still suffers, (开头是主题句,但是我们却发现备选标题没有合适的选项,只能继续看后面的细节)with water services inferior to those available to the ancient Greeks and Romans. As the united Nations report on access to water reiterated in November 2001, more than one billion people lack access to clean drinking water; some two and a half billion do not have adequate sanitation services. Preventable water-related diseases kill an estimated 10,000to 20,000 children every day, and the latest evidence suggests that we are falling behind in efforts to solve these problem. 细节给出了三个例子,我们对细节内容简单概括:

  三个例子中提到的clean drinking water,sanitation services,water-related diseases逆向思维起标题都跟健康有关,进而得出答案。

  3) 主题句有生词

  C7Test1Passage2

  D The consequences of our water policies extend beyond jeopardizing human health.(开头像主题句,但是jeopardizing很多烤鸭不认识,那我们继续看细节)Tens of millions of people have been forced to move from their homes-often with little warning or compensation-to make way for the reservoirs behind dams. More than 20% of all freshwater fish species are now threatened or endangered because dams and water withdrawals have destroyed the free-flowing river ecosystems where they thrive. Certain irrigation practices degrade soil quality and reduce agricultural productivity. Groundwater aquifers are being pumped down faster than they are naturally replenished in parts of India, China, the USA and elsewhere. And disputes over shared water resources have led to violence and continue to raise local, national and even international tensions.细节给出五个例子(看不懂全部,看懂2-3个也ok),对细节内容的概括:

  5个例子中涉及的people,freshwater,irrigation,groundwater aquifers这些词逆向思维概括,也只有environment能代表,并且五个事例都是讲的水政策对环境不好的影响,进而选出标题。

  4)主题句的内容和细节内容不一致

  C7 Test3 Passage2

  F There are two other kinds of research that have thrown some light on the origins of the Native American population; they involve the study of teeth and languages.主题句提到了teeth和languages两方面的研究 The biological anthropologist Christy Turner is an expert in the analysis of changing physical characteristics in human teeth. He argues that tooth crowns and roots have high genetic component, minimally affected by environmental and other factors. Studies carried out by Turner of by of many thousands of New and old World specimens, both majority of prehistoric Americans are linked to Northern Asian populations by crown and root traits such incisor shoveling, single-rooted upper first premolars and triple-tooted lower first molars.

  According to Turner, this ties in with the idea of a single Paleo-Indian migration out of North Asia, which he sets at before 14,000 years ago by calibrating rates of dental micro-evolution. Tooth analyses also suggest that there two later migrations of Na-Denes and Eskimo-Aleut. 细节只提到了与teeth相关的内容

  所选标题:ii dental evidence。 虽然F段开头讲述了两方面teeth和languages的研究,但是F段细节大量论述了与teeth有关的一方面的内容,所以标题只能选ii。

  干扰选项:iii Greenberg’s analysis of the dental and linguistic evidence

  5)无法排除干扰项

  不着急,在匹配的过程中,遇到这种情况,我们可以对选项进行逆向思维,进而过滤干扰标题。

  方法:如果要选这个标题,选项中的每一个词我们都要回原文找到,它不一定非得是原词、可以是相关词、改写词。如果找不到,此选项排除。

  C7Test2Passage3

  Section E It would have been easy to criticize the MIRTP for using in the early phases a ‘top-down’ approach, in which decisions were made by experts and officials before being handed down to communities, but it was necessary to start the process form the level of the governmental authorities of the district. It would have been difficult to respond to the requests of villagers and other rural inhabitants without the support and understanding of district authorities.

  干扰项:iv Government authorities’ instructions段落中有提到Government authorities,但找不到instructions的任何描述,所以排除掉。

  正确选项:x Co-operation of district officials 其中district officials是district authorities.替换,Co-operation是 support and understanding的替换

  6)细节看不懂,概括不出大意

  如果你是雅思界的屌丝,词汇量太低,主题句看不懂,细节句看不懂,怎么办?没关系,朗阁专家还有最后一杀手锏,我们统计heading中Keywords(关键词)在自然段出现的频率,只要备选Heading的单词和原文段落的单词出现两个以上的匹配,即两个以上相关词的对应就可以选,注意只有一个匹配不可以选。这样我们就把最难的List of headings题型转化成了单词匹配题,像在玩“连连看”游戏一样,不断寻找标题和段落意思相近或者相关的词,找到两对就完成任务,这样即使文章看不懂,题目依然可以做,是不是有一种“妈妈再也不担心我学习的感觉?”

  具体应用看下图:

  用我们刚才做过的C7Test1Passage2来匹配一下C,D两段

  C Yet there is a dark side to this picture: despite our progress, half of the world’s population still suffers, with water services inferior to those available to the ancient Greeks and Romans. As the united Nations report on access to water reiterated in November 2001, more than one billion people lack access to clean drinking water; some two and a half billion do not have adequate sanitation services. Preventable water-related diseases kill an estimated 10,000to 20,000 children every day, and the latest evidence suggests that we are falling behind in efforts to solve these problems.

  答案:vii the relevance to health

  标题vii Health和C段中四组词都对应,属于图解2,可选。

  接下来匹配一下D段

  D The consequences of our water policies extend beyond jeopardizing human health. Tens of millions of people have been forced to move from their homes-often with little warning or compensation-to make way for the reservoirs behind dams. More than 20% of all freshwater fish species are now threatened or endangered because dams and water withdrawals have destroyed the free-flowing river ecosystems where they thrive. Certain irrigation practices degrade soil quality and reduce agricultural productivity. Groundwater aquifers are being pumped down faster than they are naturally replenished in parts of India, China, the USA and elsewhere. And disputes over shared water resources have led to violence and continue to raise local, national and even international tensions.

  答案:v Environmental effects

  干扰项:vii the relevance to health

  标题v中的environmental对应D段中两个以上的词,属于图解2,可选。

  标题vii的 中的health虽然对应D段首句出现的health,但是这属于图解1,不可选。

  结合上篇内容,在完成List of headings的题目中,朗阁海外研究中心的专家给我们介绍了两种破解主题句的方法,主题句破解法和细节词破解法,每种方法都有各自魅力和不足,没有谁是万能的,能一劳永逸解决所有段落的大意,如果想要在考场上达到最好的功效,套用一句广告词就是“要两种一起用,效果才更好!”


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