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您所在的位置:济南朗阁 > 名师访谈 > 庖丁解牛之list of headings——如何寻找主题句?

庖丁解牛之list of headings——如何寻找主题句?

新闻文章排行榜>> 丨2015-10-23 作者:朗阁 点击数:

核心提示:朗阁海外考试研究中心的李园为大家带来了庖丁解牛系列的如何寻找主题句篇,帮助大家来正确寻找主题句。下面就跟小编来看看吧~

  朗阁海外考试研究中心 李园

  一、List of headings的重要性

  List of headings(LOH),又称标题题,是对考生能力要求比较高的一种题型。既需要考生正真读懂一个自然段,又要具备归纳总结能力。 新版的剑十Test1 Passage2,Test2 Passage1,Test3 Passage1三篇文章都涉及此类型题的考察,足以见证雅思考官对此类型题型的重视。而朗阁专家根据2015年上半年雅思最新考试题型统计发现,list of headings有以下三个特点:

  1)该题型频率基本每个月都会出现一次,通常以Test2的位置出现。

  2)该题型后面多搭配填空题,而剑桥真题中多搭配判断题。细究原因我们不难发现,LOH考察段落宏观归纳能力,填空或者判断题考察细节辨析能力,搭配出题比较合理。

  3)而文章类型多样,涉及环境、动物、经济、心理等各行各业。

1月 2015.1.10 Test2 LOH+填空 环境类
3月 2015.3.12 Test2 LOH+判断+填空 心理类
2015.3.14 Test1  LOH+Classify 发展史类
2015.3.21 Test2  LOH+填空+人名配 管理类
4月 2015.4.11 Test2  LOH+填空 动物类
2015.4.18 Test2  LOH+多选+填空 心理类
5月 2015.5.30 Test2  LOH+填空+人名配 经管类
6月 2015.6.27 Test2  LOH+填空+多选 科技类

  2015年上半年List of headings分布情况

  List of headings出题频率高,考查宏观概括能力较难,致使大部分考生觉得难以下手,今天,朗阁专家为烤鸭带来两种破解方法,帮助大家揭开List of heading的面纱,获取破题锦囊。

  二、两种解题方法

  (一)主题句破解法:适合词汇量大,基础好的学生,能够快速找到段落主题句,或者某段主题句明显的时候使用。

  (二)细节词破解法:适合词汇量一般,基础薄弱的学生,段落读完看不懂,或者段落主题句不明显的时候使用。

  今天《庖丁解牛之list of headings》上半部,先为大家带来“主题句破解法”。

  三、“主题句破解法”操作指南

  对于议论文或者说明文,文章的每一个段落都有自己的使命,即承接着作者的观点和写作意图,之后紧跟着对观点的解释说明或者论证过程,所以每一个段落都会包含:topic sentence + details support ,即全段内容 = 主题句 + 论证过程

  为了方便大家好理解,我们把一个完整的段落看成一头牛,其中:

  ----牛头:段落开头,浓缩的精华部分,需精读

  ----牛身:段落支撑

  ----牛尾:段落结尾,上文内容总结性陈述细看,上文未提到的内容略过

  A 细节略看

  a说理型论证:通常含有并列、顺序、因果关系相关信号词

  b举例型论证:通常含有大写、数字、具体人物、事件等细节描述

  B 隐藏观点细看:通常含有转折、让步、副词等信号词

  (一)主题句破解法步骤:

  A 精读首二句:如果出现过渡句、“?”所在的句子,转折词所在的句子,举例前的句子,通常是主题句。

  B 浏览中间部分,完成a、b、c 三步

  a细节略看

  1)说理型论证:并列和顺序抓好信号词所在的句子即可,因果说理过程略看

  并列结构信号词:also,similarly,in addition,furthermore,moreover,besides

  顺序信号词:firstly,secondly,then,lastly,finally,

  因果关系信号词:reason,since,because ,reason,so,hence,thus,therefore

  2)举例型论证:略看

  信号词:for example,for instance,such as,like

  b辨别隐藏观点:通常会出现转折词(but,however等)、副词(essentially,importantly等)(List of headings题目中,20%段落会出现段中隐藏观点)

  c 辨别是否有其他题型的题目潜伏其中,先完成。

  C 细看结尾观点句:通常会出现thus,therefore,it means that,,it is clear that,it reveals that,conclusion等信号词

  (二)真题操练

  1)首二末句常出现主题句

  C4 Test4passage3

  Section A

  The problem of how health-care resources should be allocated or apportioned, so that they are distributed in both the most just and the most efficient way, is not a new one. Every health system in an economically developed society is faced with the need to decide (either formally or informally) 段首,需精读讲述了在经济发达国家面临的一个问题what proportion of the community’s total resources should be spent on health-care; how resources are to be apportioned; what diseases and disabilities and which forms of treatment are to be given priority; which members of the community are to be given special consideration in respect of their health needs; and which forms of treatment are the most cost-effective.中间细节说明,句式为并列,快速浏览

  所选标题:iv A problem shared by every economically developed country(标题是对首二句内容的改写)

  C8Test2Passage3

  A A survey conducted by Anthony Synott at Montreal’s Concordia University asked participants to comment on how important smell was to them in their lives. It became apparent that smell can evoke strong emotional responses. 首二句精读A scent associated withgood experience can bring a rush of joy, while a foul odour or one associated with a bad memory may make us grimace with disgust.Respondents to the survey noted that many of their olfactory likes and dislikes were based on that we would generally consider fragrant become disagreeable for particular individuals. 中间细节跳过The perception of smell, therefore, consists not only of the sensation of the odours themselves, but of the experiences andemotions associated with them.结尾therefore总结信号词,呼应开头,强调smell 和feelings之间的联系。

  所选标题:viii The relationship between smell and feelings

  C8 Test4 Passage1

  D Lessons all follow the same pattern. 段首精读,讲述了课程遵循了相似的模式。At the beginning, the pupils put solutions to the homework on the board, then the teachers comment, correct or elaborate as necessary. Pupils mark their own homework : this is an important principle in Japanese schooling as it enables pupils to see where and why they made a mistake , so that these can be avoided in future . No one minds mistakes or ignorance as long as you are prepared to learn from them.

  After the homework has been discussed , the teacher explains the topic of the lesson , slowly and with a lot of repetition and elaboration . Examples are demonstrated on the board; questions from the textbook are worked through first the class and then the class is set questions from the textbook to do individually. Only rarely are supplementary worksheets disturbed in a maths class. The impression is that the logical nature of the textbooks and their comprehensive coverage of different types of examples, combined with the relative homogeneity of the class, renders work sheets unnecessary. At this point, the teacher would circulate and make sure that all the pupils were coping well.蓝色为Lessons的上课具体流程,出现了at the beginning,then等信号词,属于细节信息,快速浏览(多个段落组成的section,保险起见每个段落的结构都要看)

  所选标题:v The typical format of a maths education(typical format对应首句的正文首句same pattern)

  2)举例前的观点是主题句

  C8Test3Passage3

  D Every organism has a life span which is highly characteristic. There are striking differences in life span between different species, but within one species the parameter is relatively constant. 举例前的内容精读,重点关注but后面的信息For example, the average duration of human life has hardly changed in thousands in thousands of years. Although more and more people attain an advanced age as a result of developments in medical care better nutrition, the characteristic upper limit for most remains 80 years. A further argument against the simple wear and tear theory is the observation that the time within which organisms ages lies between a few days and several thousand years, as with mammoth trees.举例子内容跳过

  所选标题:vii A stable life span despite improvements(stable对应正文for example前的relatively constant)

  3)“?”所在的句子是主题句

  C8Test 4 Passage1

  F So what are the major contributing factors in the success of maths teaching?“?”所在的句子前后往往是主题句 Clearly, attitudes are important. Education is valued greatly in Japanese culture; maths is reognised as an important compulsory subject throughout schooling; and the emphasis is on hard work coupled with a focus on accuracy.

  Other relevant points relate to the supportive attitude of a class towards slower pupils, the lack of competition within a class, and the positive emphasis on learning for oneself and improving one’s own standard. And the view of repetitively boring lessons and learning the facts by heart, which is sometimes quoted in relation to Japanese classes, may be unfair and justified. No poor maths lessons were observed. They were mainly good and one or two were inspirational.两段正文都在围绕问句,探讨日本数学成功的因素展开

  所选选项: viii The key to Japanese successes in maths education(跟正文“?”句相呼应)

  4)转折词所在的句子是主题句

  C6 Test2 Passage1

  B In the UK,travel times to work had been stable for at least six centuries,with people avoiding situations that required them to spend more than half an hour travelling to work. Trains and initially allowed to people to live at greater distances without taking longer to reach their destination. However, public infrastructure did not keep pace with urban sprawl, causing massive congestion problems which now make commuting times far higher.中间含有转折词,主题句往往在转折词的后面(涉及List of headings题型的段落,总会有段落的主题放在转折词后面)

  所选标题:vii Increase in travelling times(分别跟however后面的higher和commuting time进行了改写)

  C6Test2Passage1

  E It was once assumed that improvements in telecommunicationswould lead to more dispersal in the population as people were no longer forced into cities. However, the ISTP team’s research demonstrates that the population and job density of cites rose or remained constant in the 1980s after decades of decline. The explanation for this seems to be that it is valuable to place people working in related fields together. ‘The new world will largely depend on human creativity flourishes where people come together face-to-face’.

  文章开头貌似讲telecommunications的影响,但是第二句however后面一转折,真正强调的是“一起工作的益处”。

  所选标题:iii The benefits of working together in cities(benefits对应however后面的valuable,creativity,working together在however后面出现,并与face-to-face对应)

  干扰标题:vi The telecommunications on population distribution(拿however前的内容做干扰项)

  5)下一段首句是主题句(这一法则来源于文章开头“承上启下”的写法)

  C7 Test1 Passage2

  C Yet there is a dark side to this picture: despite our progress, half of the world’s population still suffers, with water services inferior to those available to the ancient Greeks and Romans. As the united Nations report on access to water reiterated in November 2001, more than one billion people lack access to clean drinking water; some two and a half billion do not have adequate sanitation services. Preventable water-related diseases kill an estimated 10,000to 20,000 children every day, and the latest evidence suggests that we are falling behind in efforts to solve these problems.

  D The consequences of our water policies extend beyondjeopardizing human health……

  C段所选标题:vii The relevance to health(D段开头human health是对C段的总结)

  6)细节题答案所在的句子是主题句

  C9 Test4 Passage3

  C In a related development, the sharp distinction between museum and heritage sites on the one hand, and theme parks on the other, is gradually evaporating. 选择题33题答案所在的句子They already borrow ideas and concepts from one another. For example…… (举例前的观点句是主题句,细节后内容可以略过)

  先做这一段涉及的细节题——判断题:

  33选择题:The writer says that museums, heritage site and theme parks

  A often work in close partnership

  B try to preserve separate identities

  C have similar exhibits

  D are less easy to distinguish than before

  正确答案:D

  我们现根据选择题题干定位到C段开头,选出D选项distinction…evaporating 对应D选项less easy to distinguish。而C开头句子又正好是C段主题句,进而选出List of headings C段标题:Fewer differences between public attractions。

  所以遇见List of headings的题型,建议先判断这一段是否含有细节题并先完成,然后再完成List of headings题。因为先做细节题比较好下手,同时也帮助烤鸭理解段落中心,进而判断该段落主题。

  以下就是朗阁专家给大家总结的“六大常出现主题句”,希望帮助大家迅速锁定文章主旨,搞定段落大意,做出正确的判断。

1 首二末句常出现主题句
2 举例前的观点是主题句
3 “?”所在的句子是主题句
4 转折词所在的句子是主题句
5 下一段首句是主题句
6 细节题答案所在的句子是主题句

  可是如果在探索主题句的路上遇到荆棘,比如主题句不确定怎么办?Don’t worry,朗阁专家还为大家总结了主题句的辨别“三大辅助法则”,可以帮助烤鸭明确主题句:

  1)主题句后面要有细节对其论证——没有细节论证的句子不是主题句。

  2)主题句描述相对比较概括,总领全段——看完主题句后,大概能知道段落中心内容。

  3)反复出现的核心概念是主题——作者通过反复出现核心概念,来强化观点。


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