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雅思写作Report题型写作思路梳理

时间:2015-07-13 09:23  作者:jnlongre  来源:未知  

摘要:雅思大作文的提问方式相对比较固定,大致分为 do you agree or disagree?, discuss both views and give your own opinion, what are the causes and how to solve it?这几种类型。本文中,朗阁海外考试研究中心的专家将着重论述如何撰写报告类,即分析问题

  雅思大作文的提问方式相对比较固定,大致分为 “do you agree or disagree?”, “discuss both views and give your own opinion”, “what are the causes and how to solve it?”这几种类型。本文中,朗阁海外考试研究中心的专家将着重论述如何撰写报告类,即分析问题类文章的写作技巧。

  审题并分析现象产生的原因:

  一种现象的产生,总是由内、外两种原因造成的,如果只分析其中一方面的原因,则会让文章看起来有失偏颇。在此,我们将以历年真题为例,对此类问题的写作思路进行梳理。

  解题思路一:

  What are the causes of water scarcity and how can we solve this problem?

  乍一看,这道题目并不难,但考生很容易只想到一些人为的原因,如水资源污染、浪费等,但其实水资源缺少也有其自然原因,如淡水资源本身就很匮乏,以及区域分配很不合理等。这样我们的原因和解决方案都会充实起来。

  其次,我们再来讨论一下报告类问题的篇章布局。一般来说,我们会遵循四段式的写作结构,除去开头段和结尾段,中间两段一般前一段写原因,后一段写解决方案。以此题为例,我们会用一段来论述水资源短缺的原因,然后用另一段写针对提到的原因提出相应的解决办法。

  注意,许多考生只分别注意了原因和解决方案,但忘记了它们是无法分割的整体,因此有些时候考生提出的解决方法无法解决他之前谈到的原因。这样一来,在逻辑上就出现了断层,如果考生的语言论述水平比较有限,则会让断层显得更为明显,从而会丢掉不少分数。逻辑梳理完之后,我们来把文章的中间两段实际撰写一下,考生们可以从中体会一下原因段与方法段的逻辑联系。

  范文分析:

  There are multiple factors contributing to the shortage of freshwater, including natural characters and human activities. In terms of natural characters, the volume of fresh water is highly limited worldwide, as it only accounts for the 3% of total water source in the world. Besides, the distribution of fresh water is regional imbalance. Therefore, some areas are suffering from lack of available drinking water, such as Middle East and Africa. However, uncontrolled human activities worsen the situation of fresh water. Lots of pollutants emitted from factories and residential buildings into rivers and streams, which results in the heavy contamination of fresh water. And waster is another indispensible element leading to the shortage of fresh water, which is ascribed to the lack of environmental awareness.

  Based on all mentioned factors leading to the water scarcity, a couple of effective solutions can be implemented. First of all, advanced technology is needed to purify sea water at a relative low cost and sell it with a reasonable price. Then, the imbalanced allocation of fresh water called for the intense cooperation among areas, including some transfer projects. As far as the human behaviors, we have to come up with some strict rules and punishments to regulate our activities. For factories, if they release too much wastes into the waters, they will face a huge ticket and be required to innovate their current technology to improve the efficiency of using water. For citizens, they will be charged more when the amount of water they consume exceeds certain level.

  至此,我们中间两段的论述已经结束,相信考生已经发现在提出相应的解决方案时,不要忘记和相对应的原因联系起来。只有这样,才可以让整篇文章浑然一体,也更具有说服力。

  解题思路二:

  现在,我们再来看一道真题:Many children prefer to watch TV rather than to do creative things. What are the causes of this phenomenon and how can we solve this problem?

  和上面提到的真题不同,这道题目中直接提到了人,所以这道题应该从人和事物这两个方面来讨论原因。

  从孩子的角度讲,他们没有意识到参与创造性活动的重要性,而更为深层次的原因是学校和家长在对孩子进行相关教育方面的不足。从电视的角度分析,现在的电视节目,尤其是针对儿童的动画片等,制作精美,情节引人入胜,成功地吸引了孩子们的目光。从参与创造性活动的角度讲,如果对孩子提出较高的要求,又缺乏合理的指导,孩子可能无法顺利完成活动任务,从而导致他们逃避参与创造性的活动。

  以上的问题,我们可以逐个解决,如:家长和学校要加强对孩子的指导教育,使他们意识到创造性活动对他们今后发展的重要性;相关电视节目要更加注重于引导孩子们发挥他们的创造力和想象力;除此之外,可以增加创造性活动的趣味性,同时要和孩子的年龄与能力相匹配。这样一来,这篇文章的思路和内容都比较丰满了。现在我们将以上思路落实到英文表达上:

  范文分析:

  Generally speaking, children are hardly ascribed to the failure to participate in the creative activities. It is lack of relative education and instruction that makes children ignore the importance of doing creative things. Parents pay too much attention to their job and household. At the same time, school spends most time focusing on the academic subjects. What’s more, advanced technology and deliberate design succeed attracting children’s attention, especially those programs targeting at young children. In addition, some creative activities have high requirements for children, which are beyond the reach of those young kids.

  Considering all those mentioned elements, some effective solutions could be adopted. First of all, both parents’ and schools’ attention should be diverted to creative programs to let children realize the significance of joining in those programs. Besides, some revolutionary reforms should occur to current TV program. For example, some creative questions should be added in those cartoon programs and the plot will leave enough imaginative space for children as well. Moreover, those creative programs should adopt to children’s abilities and give certain room to children to improve.

  朗阁海外考试研究中心在此提醒考生,一个问题的出现绝不是单一原因造成的,所以在原因论述段要尽可能想得全面,要涉及到与问题相关的每一个因素,并针对其特点提出相应的解决方案。

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