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雅思听力技巧之--雅思听力同义转换

时间:2014-12-23 14:39  作者:jnlongre  来源:未知  

摘要:准备IELTS的烤鸭们应该知道听力的核心是定位加理解,而理解的核心是同义转换。所以,得同义词者,得听力。既然同义词对听力解题如此重要,烤鸭们该如何取胜?济南朗阁五星级名师团为你答疑。

  准备IELTS的烤鸭们应该知道听力的核心是定位加理解,而理解的核心是同义转换。所以,得同义词者,得听力。既然同义词对听力解题如此重要,烤鸭们该如何取胜?济南朗阁五星级名师团通过对剑桥历年真题的研究,发现听力的同义转换主要有以下几个原则:
 
  一、词性的转换
  词性的转换,通俗地说就是变形,主要是指几种常见和常用的词性之间的转换,如名词、动词、形容词和副词等。
 
  如剑桥8 Test4 Section4中的Q40
Symbolizes            in Aboriginal culture
原文:Even today, Aborigines see the Rainbow Serpent as a symbol of creation.
分析:题目中的动词symbolizes被原文中的名词symbol替换,形容词Aboriginal被原文中的名词Aborigines替换。如果注意到这两者间的词性转换,就很容易听出答案creation。
 
再如剑桥4 Test3 Section2中的Q12
What will the reviewer concentrate on today?
A theatre
B dance
C exhibition
原文:For today’s report though, Geoffrey, I’m looking at some of the theatrical events that you might like to see.
分析:选项中的名词theatre被原文中的形容词theatrical替换,这样就可以轻松地选择A选项。
 
  二、同义词或同义词组的转换
  同义词的转换,顾名思义就是意思相同或相近的词之间的转换。词组的转换一般情况下是同义词转换的一个衍生。如果一个词找不到合适的同义词解释,就会用一个意思接近的词组进行解释,有时甚至会用一个句子进行同义转换。
 
如剑桥5 Test4 Section1中的Q3
Intended length of stay:             
原文:
---And how long would you want to stay with the host family?
---I’m planning on staying a year but at the moment I’m definitely here for four months only. I have to get an extension to my permit.
分析:题目中的intended被原文中的同义词planning替换,注意到这两者间的同义转换,就不难定位答案four months, 否则就很容易掉入出题者所设置的陷阱a year中。
 
再如剑桥9 Test1 Section2中的Q15
Shops specializes in equipment for             
原文:…, but they particularly focus on running, and they claim to have the widest range of equipment in the country.
分析:题目中的词组specialize in被原文中的词组focus on替换。
 
还有在剑8 Test2 Section4中的Q35中出现了一个难度较大的词与句子间的同义转换
Shona needs to do further research in order to        
A present the government with her findings.
B decide the level of extra funding needed.
C identify the preferences of the public.
原文:I will need to do more far-reaching research than I had anticipated in order to establish if people want extra medical staff invested in the community, or if they want care to revert to fewer, but larger, key medical units.
分析:仔细对比题目和原文,不难发现题目的正确选项中的单词preferences与原文中的句子结构if…, or if… 是同义关系。这就提醒烤鸭们,在平时的备考练习中,除了掌握意思接近的同义词或词组外,还要掌握词与句子结构间的同义转换。
 
  三、上下义的转换
  上下义是指在语义上有包含与被包含关系的词语。通常,上义词是对事物的概括性说明,下义词是对事物的具体说明。
 
如剑桥8 Test4 Section2中的Q16

原文:So the roadway at the entry to Thomas Street from Days Road will be painted red.
分析:题目中colored与原文中的red是上下义的同义转换关系,所以答案选B。
 
  四、句子的转换
  句子的转换主要是指主动句和被动句的转换,陈述句和疑问句的转换,以及肯定句和否定句的转换。
 
如剑桥4 Test1 Section2中的Q12
The metal industry was established at Riverside Village by           who lived in the area.
原文:Water was the main source of power for the early industries and some of the water wheels were first established in the twelfth century, would you believe? At that time, local craftsmen first built an iron forge just behind the village here, on the bend in the river.
分析:题目中的被动句be established by…与原文中的local craftsmen built…构成了同义转换,导致答案前置,所以本题的难度系数较大,不易定位答案local craftsmen。
 
再如剑桥8 Test4 Section2中的Q12
It has been decided that the overhead power lines will be         
A extended.
B buried.
C repaired.
原文:Well, I’m happy to report that the power company have agreed to move the overhead power lines underground at a cost of $800,000.
分析:题目中的被动句It has been decided that the overhead power lines will be与原文中的主动句the power company have agreed to move the overhead power lines underground进行了同义转换,所以答案选B。
 
还有在剑桥7 Test4 Section3中的Q22
The presentation will not be          .
原文:
---And is this one going to be assessed?
---No, not this time round, because it’s the first one, you know.
分析:题目中的陈述句与原文中的疑问句进行了同义转换,导致答案前置,但是因为答案assessed离关键词not很近,所以不难定位。
 
最后看剑桥5 Test2 Section2中的Q14
What does Dan say about the town of Rivas?
A It has received the greatest number of bikes.
B It has almost as many bikes as Amsterdam.
C Its economy has been totally transformed.
原文:One example of a town that’s received bicycles from Pedal Power is Rivas. It was the first place I sent a full container of bicycles to. Most people there now own a bicycle. The local economy has developed so much, you wouldn’t recognize it as the same place. In fact, there are more bikes than on the streets of Amsterdam, if you’ve ever been there.
分析:正确选项中的肯定句Its economy has been totally transformed与原文中的否定句The local economy has developed so much, you wouldn’t recognize it as the same place进行了同义转换。
 
  综上所述,同义转换在雅思听力中可以说是无处不在的,不仅Section1中有,Section4中也有;不仅填空题中有,选择题中也有。烤鸭们在做题的时候要注意哪里出现了同义转换,是怎样进行转换的,不仅能扩充自己的词汇量,也有助于了解出题者的思路和常见的陷阱,做到“知己知彼,百战不殆”。另外,它山之石可以攻玉,烤鸭们还可以把听力中学到的同义词灵活运用于阅读和写作中,为阅读和写作添色。
 
  最后,朗阁海外考试研究中心的专家通过对剑桥历年真题的总结,整理了其中最高频的同义词分享给各位考生。
 
  1. 动词篇
预订 book/reserve/booking/reservation
提前 in advance/ahead of time/ahead of schedule/before
支付,花费,价格 pay/cost/price/fee/fare/expense/charge
帮助 help/support/sponsor/assist/aid
找到,发现 identify/discover/find/find out/look for/locate
依靠,需要 depend on/rely on/count on/need
处理,解决 deal with/cope with/handle/address/tackle
改变,调整 change/alter/shift/transform/revise/modify/adjust
计划,打算 plan/intend
保护 protect/preserve/reserve/conserve/save…from…/rescue/safe/safety
威胁 threaten/endanger/dangerous/threat
影响 affect/effect/impact/influence
要求 require/request/ask for/need
包括 include/involve/cover
位于 be located in/be situated in/be set in/be in
分发,分配 distribute/send out/give out/deliver
建造 build/establish/construct/set up
重点是,专注于 focus on/concentrate on/specialize in/be devoted to
出发 leave/depart/departure
到达 arrive/arrival/get to/reach
增加 increase/expand/go up/more
减少 decrease/reduce/decline/go down/less/fewer
能够 be able to/ability/expertise/can/be possible to
组织 organize/hold/arrange/run
提供 offer/provide/supply
选择 select/choose/go for/opt for/selection/choice/option
放弃 give up/quit
收集 collect/gather
参加 attend/participate in/take part in/get involved in
拒绝 refuse/turn down/decline
 
  2. 名词篇
居民 people/population/resident/inhabitant/human/community
动物 animal/wildlife/creature
植物 plant/vegetation
地点 place/area/location/site/spot/region
环境 environment/surrounding/condition/circumstance/neighborhood
方法 way/method/how/means/by means of/with/use/approach/methodology
特征 feature/characteristic/special
种类 type/sort/kind/category/classification
情况介绍 introduction/induction/orientation
问题,麻烦 problem/question/trouble
优点 advantage/good point/benefit/merit/strength
缺点 disadvantage/drawback/poor/shortcoming/demerit/weakness/…,but…
活动 activity/event
娱乐 entertainment/recreation/leisure
电影 movie/film/documentary/cartoon/romance/action
图片 picture/photo/image
小册子 brochure/booklet/leaflet
期刊 journal/issue/periodical
茶点,点心 refreshment/drinks and snacks
 
  3. 形容词篇
大部分的 most/majority/a large part of/a significant proportion of/over 50%
特定的,特殊的 special/particular/certain/specific
重要的 important/significant/key/stressed/essential/crucial
有趣的 interesting/fascinating/funny/attractive/charming
惊讶的 surprised/amazing/don’t expect/be taken aback by
相关的 relevant/relate to/link to/have something to do with/It’s to do with
当地的 local/from the area/in the area/native/indigenous
国内的 home/domestic
国外的 foreign/overseas/abroad
可得到的 available/have
现在的 present/current/at the moment/now
以前的 previous/former/original/used to/in the past
最开始的 first/first of all/to begin with/to start with
最后的 last/final/lastly/finally
最大的 maximum/up to/at most
最小的 minimum/start at/at least
大范围的,各种各样的 a range of/a variety of/all kinds of
足够的 enough/sufficient
精确的,正确的 accurate/exact/correct/right
有名的 famous/well-known
 
  4. 介词篇
从…到… from…to…/between… and…
在后面 behind/at the back
在中间 in the middle/in the center
在附近 next to/beside/near/be close to
贯穿整个… throughout…/all over the…
关于 about/on/regarding/in regard to
大约 about/approximately/around
超过 more than/over/above
少于 less than/below/under
 
  5. 连词篇
因为 because/because of/be caused by/for/as/since/…,so…
尽管 although/though/while/…,but…
当…时候 when/while/as/at the time of
如果 if/when/provided
不但…而且… not only…but also…/not merely…but also…/not just…but…
和 and/also/as well as/another/…too/…so do…/as do…
为了 in order to/to /aim at
例如 for example/for instance/such as/like/…and so on/…etc./…that sort of thing

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