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雅思阅读文章的段落结构特点

时间:2013-03-25 13:35  作者:济南朗阁  来源:济南雅思培训学校  

摘要:在雅思阅读考试的题型中有一种heading题,即标题配对题.该题型的难度位居雅思各大题型之首,因为该题型主要考查考生们对段落大致内容的把握能力,虽然很多考生认真读懂全段的每一句话甚至每一个单词,却依然丈二和尚摸不着头脑

  在雅思阅读考试的题型中有一种heading题,即标题配对题。该题型的难度位居雅思各大题型之首,因为该题型主要考查考生们对段落大致内容的把握能力,虽然很多考生认真读懂全段的每一句话甚至每一个单词,却依然丈二和尚摸不着头脑。实际上,这种在雅思题型中夺得难度头魁的题型并没有考生们所想象的那么恐怖,应对这种题型,济南雅思培训学校的老师建议考生们首先要做的就是“知己知彼,百战不殆”,也就是说考生们首先要了解雅思阅读文章的段落结构特点。
 
  由于西方人是直线式思维的,不同于中国人的螺旋式思维模式,因此雅思阅读文章的段落结构有其明显的特点,考生只要抓住这些特点就能轻松得出段落大意。而雅思阅读文章的段落结构通常可以分为四种。
 
  ☆ 第一种:总分式结构
 
  如剑8 Test 4 Passage 1 Section D
 
  Lessons all follow the same pattern. At the beginning, the pupils put solutions to the homework on the board, then the teachers comment, correct or elaborate as necessary. Pupils mark their own homework: this is an important principle in Japanese schooling as it enables pupils to see where and why they made a mistake, so that these can be avoided in future. No one minds mistakes or ignorance as long as you are prepared to learn from them.
 
  After the homework has been discussed, the teacher explains the topic of the lesson, slowly and with a lot of repetition and elaboration. Examples are demonstrated on the board; questions from the textbook are worked through first with the class, and then…Only rarely are supplementary worksheets distributed in a maths class. The impression is that the logical nature of the textbooks and …renders work sheets unnecessary. At this point, the teacher would circulate and make sure that all the pupils were copying well.
 
  分析:此段属于明显的总分式结构,第一句“Lessons all follow the same pattern”统领整个段落,然后分别用“At the beginning”和“After the homework has been discussed”为信号,解说整个课堂的授课流程。但是这种总分式的段落结构在雅思阅读考试的文章中量不是特别大,通常占五分之一的比例。
 
  ☆ 第二种:转折式结构(出现转折词或相应表达,把思路逆转)
 
  如剑6 Test 2 Passage 1 Section B(出现转折词)
 
  In the UK, travel times to work had been stable for at least six centuries, with people avoiding situations that required them to spend more than half an hour travelling to work. Trains and cars initially allowed people to live at greater distances without taking longer to reach their destination. However, public infrastructure did not keep pace with urban sprawl, causing massive congestion problems which now make commuting times far higher.
 
  分析:此段属于典型的转折式结构,用“However”作为信号词,把思路逆转,转折后的内容为本段的重点内容。这种转折式的段落结构在雅思阅读文章中偶尔出现,即使出现占的比例通常也不高,基本为五分之一左右。
 
  如剑6 Test 4 Passage 1 Paragraph E(出现相应表达把思路逆转)
 
  But the sales push rarely stops in the office. The flashy brochures and pamphlets left by the sales reps are often followed up with meals at expensive restaurants, meetings in warm and sunny places, and an inundation of promotional gadgets. Rarely do patients watch a doctor write with a pen that isn’t emblazoned with a drug’s name, or see a nurse use a tablet not bearing a pharmaceutical company’s logo. Millions of dollars are spent by pharmaceutical companies on promotional products like coffee mugs…Money well spent? It’s hard to tell. ‘I’ve been the recipient of golf balls from one company and I use them, but it doesn’t make me prescribe their medicine,’ says one doctor. ’I tend to think I’m not influenced by what they give me.’
 
  分析:此段也属于典型的转折式结构,但段落中并未出现明显的转折词,而是用“Money well spent? It’s hard to tell.”作为信号,通过意义上的转折,把思路逆转,转折后的内容为本段的重点内容。这种段落结构虽然在雅思阅读中极少出现,但是考生们不能忽略。
 
  ☆ 第三种:并列结构(附加新的信息,即信息之间为并列关系)
 
  如剑6 Test 4 Passage 3 Paragraph B
 
  Bullying is clearly unpleasant, and can make the child experiencing it feel unworthy and depressed. In extreme cases it can even lead to suicide, though this is thankfully rare. Victimized pupils are more likely to experience difficulties with interpersonal relationships as adults, while children who persistently bully are more likely to grow up to be physically violent, and convinced of anti-social offences.
 
  分析:此段属于典型的并列式结构,段落中的三句话分别用“make”、“lead to”、“be more likely to”从不同方面讲解bullying对孩子的影响,属于并列信息。这种段落结构考生只要根据信息之间的共同点来归纳段落大意即可。在雅思阅读考试中,这种段落结构出现的频率非常高,而且量也比较大,所占比例有时高达五分之四。
 
  ☆ 第四种:分总式结构
 
  如剑6 Test 4 Passage 1 C段
 
  Selling pharmaceuticals is a daily exercise in ethical judgment. Salespeople like Schaefer walk the line between the common practice of buying a prospect’s time with a free meal, and bribing doctors to prescribe their drugs. They work in an industry highly criticized for its sales and marketing practices, but find themselves in the middle of the age-old chicken-or-egg question – business won’t use strategies that don’t work, so are doctors to blame for the escalating extravagance of pharmaceutical marketing? Or is it the industry’s responsibility to decide the boundaries?
 
  分析:此段属于典型的分总式结构,段落前面部分讲了很多信息,但在后面部分用信号词“so”做了归纳总结,而归纳总结的内容才是本段最重要的内容。考生需要注意的是由于西方人是直线式思维模式,这种段落结构在雅思阅读中并不是很常见,仅是极偶尔出现而已。

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