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提高雅思写作的途径:研习范文

时间:2012-11-02 10:07  作者:济南朗阁  来源:济南雅思培训学校  

摘要:众所周知,雅思写作往往是广大雅思考生感到最头疼的一个部分,也是得分最低的一项.以2008年为例,根据雅思官方的资料,08年中国大陆雅思考生平均成绩5.46分,其中写作最低,仅5.12分

  众所周知,雅思写作往往是广大雅思考生感到最头疼的一个部分,也是得分最低的一项。以2008年为例,根据雅思官方的资料,08年中国大陆雅思考生平均成绩5.46分,其中写作最低,仅5.12分。


  造成这一现象的原因是多方面的,其中一个很重要的原因在于,很多学生只是注重应试技巧,对所谓“模板”趋之若鹜,而不是去着手提高语言能力。实际上,应试技巧固然重要,但是要想真正在写作考试中取得理想成绩,还得从根本上去提高语言能力,因为从根本上来说,雅思写作考试考察的是考生能否用符合逻辑的语言去表达观点的能力。如果没有打下良好的语言基础,那么所谓的应试技巧都将成为空中楼阁,徒有空架子而没有内容。对于很多考生而言,文章章法(即文章的行文思路、布局谋篇、结构安排、逻辑顺序)和想观点也许不是最难的,难的是用具体的语言去表达观点。


  那么该怎样去提高语言表达能力呢?研习、背诵和模仿范文(包括其他优秀英文文章)是个有效的途径。这是因为:写作是个语言输出的过程,而要想保证输出的质量,就一定要保证有大量、高质量的输入。研习和背诵范文就是这样的一个输入和积累的过程。当然,首先要搞清楚研习范文的含义。所谓研习范文,绝非仅仅是把别人的文章看懂,而是要本着独立思考的精神,根据自己的实际情况,研究并吸取范文中精华的部分。换句话说,就是要把范文中的漂亮词汇和句型(但不限于词汇和句型)通过背诵和重复记忆内化成自己的东西,以便在以后写作中的用到。所以,这个过程体现要体现出研习范文之后对今后写作的影响。只有这样做,才能从根本上避免很多同学把输入范文和输出写作割裂开来的误区,从而做到“范文好,我的作文也好”,并最终实现“大家好,才是真的好”的喜人场面。


  接下来,以研习剑六G类的B篇考官范文为例,说明这个问题。
  范文:剑六, P172
  Using a computer every day can have more negative than positive effects on young children。
  Do you agree or disagree?
  I tend to agree that young children can be negatively affected by too much time spent on the computer every day. This is partly because sitting in front of a screen for too long can be damaging to both the eyes and the physical posture of young child, regardless of what they are using the computer for。
  However, the main concern is about the type of computer activities that attract children. These are often electronic games that tend to be very intense and rather violent. The player is usually the “hero” of the game and too much exposure can encourage children to be self-centered and insensitive to others。
  Even when children use a computer of other purposes, such as getting information or emailing friends, it is no substitute for human interaction. Spending time with other children and sharing non-virtual experiences is an important part of a children’s development that cannot be provided by a computer。
  In spite of this, the obvious benefits of computer skills for young children cannot be denied. Their adult world will be changing constantly in terms of technology and the Internet is the key to all the knowledge and information available in the world today. Therefore it is important that children learn at an early age to use the equipment enthusiastically and with confidence as they will need these skills throughout their studies and working lives。
  I think the main point is to make sure the young children do not overuse computers. Parents must ensure that their children learn to enjoy other kinds of activity and not simply sit at home, learning to live in a virtual world。
  研习过程:范文原句→启示→对写作的影响(模仿句)
  1. 观点不绝对大
  a范文原句:
  I tend to agree that young children can be negatively affected by too much time spent on the computer every day。
  b启示:这句话中用到了tend to agree 这个短语,表示“倾向于同意”,表现出不绝对的语气。
  c对写作的影响(模仿范句):
  I am inclined to think that…; I tend to believe that…


  2。措辞严谨
  a范文原句: This is partly because sitting in front of a screen for too long can be damaging to both the eyes and the physical posture of young child, regardless of what they are using the computer for。
  b启示:副词partly,貌似简单,但是实际上大多数考生没有用过。这个副词虽小,但是表达的意思是:这里列举的原因只是一部分,体现出了写作的严谨。
  c对写作的影响(模仿范句):
  中文例句:因为道路体系不好,所以大城市堵车。
  未模仿前:The traffic congestion is because of the poor road system。
  模仿后:The traffic congestion is partly because of the poor road system。
  类似表达:be largely due to


  3对抽象名词的解释、举例,细化抽象名词:
  a 范文原句: Even when children use a computer of other purposes, such as getting information or emailing friends…
  b purpose比较抽象,such as getting information or emailing friends属于对purpose内容的解释,通过对抽象名词的细化,一方面可以把凑点字数,把句子写得比较长,另一方面,使得句子更细节化。
  c 对写作的影响(模仿范句):
  中文例句1:有些技术会有负面影响。
  未模仿前:Some technologies are of negative impact. →
  模仿后:Some technologies, such as weapons of mass destruction, are of negative impact。
  类似细化抽象名词的表达:from…to…; whether…or…;
  中文例句2:我在中国的那几年,有机会跟中国的翻译们紧密地合作。
  未模仿前:During those years when I was in China, I had the opportunity to work closely with Chinese translators. →
  模仿后:During those years when I was in China, I had the opportunity to work closely with Chinese translators, from beginners fresh out of school to those most capable senior professors。
  例句3:政府该重视教育。
  未模仿前:Governments should attach great importance to education.→
  未模仿后:Governments, whether rich or poor, should attach great importance to education。


  4积累漂亮词汇:(1)精彩词汇(2)主题词汇
  (1)精彩词汇
  a。范文原句: Too much exposure can encourage children to be self-centered and insensitive to others。
  b:启示: exposure 用得非常地道,一般考生不会想到,同时这个词做主语,构成了无灵主语(非人称开头)。
  c。对写作的影响(模仿范句):
  中文例句:小孩在网络上接触到太多不良信息对他们的成长不好。
  未模仿前:If children get access to too much undesirable information on the Internet, then it would undermine their personal growth. / Gaining too much undesirable information on the Internet would undermine their personal growth。
  模仿后:Heavy exposure to undesirable information on the Internet would undermine the personal growth of children。
  (2)主题词汇(电视电脑类话题): self-centered, insensitive


  5积累精彩句型:
  a范文原句: Their adult world will be changing constantly in terms of technology
  b此句写得很地道,句型精彩,而且适合模仿,in terms of 后可跟不同的词。
  c对写作的影响(模仿范句):
  中文例句:当今世界,科技进步日新月异。
  模仿前:In contemporary society, science and technology are advancing rapidly→
  模仿后:The world we are living in is changing constantly in terms of science technology。(in terms of globalization / urbanization / fashion…)
  英语写作能力的提高是一个长期的系统工程,上面所展示的对范文语言的研习和模仿只是其中一个片段。尽管如此,这种研习和模仿范文的思路和方法却是提高写作能力的根本途径之一。若雅思考生能多给写作留点备考时间,注重积累,将上述方法其融入到自己的学习实践中,夯实语言基础,便能真正实现从输入到输出的升华,不仅顺利通过雅思考试,而且还使得英语写作成为一项伴随一生的技能。

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