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雅思阅读中的各种形容词性从句(下)

时间:2012-10-12 11:11  作者:济南朗阁  来源:济南雅思培训学校  

摘要:定语从句(Attributive Clauses),在句中作定语,其作用是修饰主句的某个名词性成分,相当于形容词,所以又称为形容词性从句.通常定语从句皆置于它所修饰的名词或代词之后,被修饰的名词或代词叫做先行词(antecedent),而引导定语从句的词称为关联词

  有时定语从句中还有其他成分,介词则位于定语从句之中。如:
  This is the engineer who he cooperated with in the project.

  先行词指人时,关系代词既可以用who, 也可以用that。但关系代词在定语从句中用作主语时,多用主格who。如:
  ★ Beyond the practical need to make order out of chaos, the rise of the dictionaries is associated with the rise of the English middle class, who were anxious to define and circumscribe the various world to conquer.(persons, those, people等先行词多用关系代词who)
  ★ It is Tom who should be punished.(在强调结构中,指人时多用who)
  ★ The American zoologist Donald Griffin, who was largely responsible for the discovery of sonar in bats, coined the term ‘echolocation’ to cover both sonar and radar, whether used by animals or by human instruments.


  朗阁济南雅思培训中心分析认为,在下列情况中多用that, 而不用who或者which。如:
  ★  much        (很多)
  little         (很少)
  none         (没有任何)
  everything   (任何事情)             +先行词  +that
  everybody   (任何人)
  nothing      (没有任何)
  nobody      (没有人)


  E.g. There is nothing in the world that can frighten him.


  ★ 先行词前面有最高级形容词修饰时
  He is the most boring speaker that I have ever heard.
  This is the most interesting book that I have ever read.


  ★  先行词有以下代词或者有下列代词修饰时
  the first
  the last
  the only
  the same                    +先行词 +that
  the very
  all
  any
  no
  every


  E.g. This is the last chance that you have.
  This is the very thing that I lost yesterday.
  This is the first thing that he wants to do.
  You are the only friend that we have.
  He is the last person that Tom wants to see.
  He has told the police all that he knew.


  ★ 前面已经有疑问词who或者which时
  E.g. Who that knows him will trust him?
  Which of these trains is the one that goes to Nanjing?
  Which is the bike that you have lost?


  ★ 兼指人和物/事物时
  E.g. The man and the horse that fell into the river were drowned.
  Look at the girl and her dog that are crossing the bridge.


  在下列情况中则多用which。如:
  ★ 离先行词较远时
  He told me the story of the craftsman which I narrated at the beginning of this book.


  ★ those + 复数名词 之后
  You should buy one of those clothes which sell best.


  ★ which比较正式,非正式英语中也可以用that
  Some water experts are now demanding that existing infrastructure be used in smarter ways rather than building new facilities, which is increasingly considered the option of last, not first, resort.


  ★ 描述性定语从句一般用which
  Beijing, which was China’s capital foe more than 800 years, is rich in cultural and historic relics.


  as, than, but也可以用作关系代词。如:
  ★  The project was completed on time, as was expected before.(关系代词as在定语从句中用作主语,其先行词是前面的整个句子)
  ★  They have never met such things as he met.(关系代词as与指示代词连用,在定语从句中用作宾语,其先行词是such things)
  ★  Tourism, holidaymaking and travel are these days more significant social phenomena than most commentators have considered.(关系代词than在定语从句中用作宾语,其先行词是social phenomena)
  ★  There are very few but admire his talents.(关系代词but在从句中用作主语,其先行词是few, but= who don’t)


  用作关联词的关系副词有where, when, why等,when在定语从句中用作时间状语,其先行词是表时间的名词。如:
  ★  Just at the time when it became obvious that health-care resources could not possibly meet the demands being made upon them, people were demanding that their fundamental right to health-care be satisfied by the state.(关系副词when的先行词是the time)


  since, before, after, as也可以用作表时间的关系副词。如:
  ★  At exactly the same time as this new realization of the finite character of health-care resources was sinking in, an awareness of a contrary kind was developing in western societies.(as用作关系副词)
  ★ Every day since she came has been most enjoyable.(since用作关系副词)
  ★ On the day before the war broke out he was born.(before用作关系副词)
  ★ The year after she left school she spent abroad.(after用作关系副词)


  where在定语从句中用作地点状语,其先行词是表地点的名词。如:
  ★ I know the place where we can have a talk.
  ★  The zoo is an ideal research centre where scientists can experiment on animals to find out the causes of some disease and develop effective cures.


  where的先行词可以是有地点含义的抽象名词。如:
  ★  He has reached a point where a change is needed.(where的先行词point是抽象名词)


  why在定语从句中用作原因状语,其先行词只有reason。如:
  ★  That is the reason why he set up his own business.(why的先行词是reason)
  ★  The company refused to disclose the reason why he left.(why的先行词是reason)


  有时候why可以省去。如:
  ★ The reason he came here is obvious.(reason后面省去why)


  有时候why可以用that替代。如:
  ★ The reason that he failed was lack of patience.(why由that替代)


  关系副词 = 介词 + which(关系代词)
  where = in/at which; when = in/at which; why = for which


  定语从句分为限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。朗阁海外考试研究中心提醒考生,限制性定语从句与先行词关系密切,对它有限制性作用,因此不可缺少,如果省去,会使主句的意思不完整、不明确。限制性定语从句前面一般不用逗号。如:
  ★  The man who was driving the car was drunk.
  ★  The speech which was made by the Minister made his supporters delighted.
  ★  The police told us that he was the only person that was suspected.
  ★  This is the place where the three roads meet.
  ★  I shall never forget the day when she was born.
  ★  The reason why he was late was unknown.
  ★  The house whose windows are broken is Mr. A’s.


  非限制性定语从句也称为描述性定语从句。非限制性定语从句只与先行词有一种松散的修饰关系,在口语中用停顿的方法表示,在书面语中用逗号分开。因此从句中的关系代词不能省略。that一般不引导非限制性定语从句。如:
  ★  Water, which is a clear liquid, is the giver and taker of life.
  ★  They gave up the plan, which was a very good one.

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