官方咨询热线:0531-86010342

济南朗阁培训 济南雅思培训辅导 济南托福培训辅导

位置:首页济南朗阁培训 > 雅思培训 > 雅思冲刺技巧 > 雅思写作培训 >

议论文写作段落发展三原则

时间:2012-10-09 14:04  作者:济南朗阁  来源:济南雅思培训学校  

摘要:在应试型(雅思或新托福等)议论文写作中,通常遵循introduction- body-conclusion(引言段-主体段-结论段)的"三步曲".Body(主体)段落提供了论证观点的理由,是整个文章的主体,在评分中占有很大的比重

  在应试型(雅思或新托福等)议论文写作中,通常遵循introduction- body-conclusion(引言段-主体段-结论段)的“三步曲”。Body(主体)段落提供了论证观点的理由,是整个文章的主体,在评分中占有很大的比重。例如一篇满分的雅思作文(9分)必须“presents a fully developed position in answer to the question with relevant, fully extended and well supported ideas”。这里的“fully extended / well supported”,必须通过主体段来体现。新托福的满分作文(5分)也要求“is well organized and well developed, using clearly appropriate explanations, exemplifications, and/or details”,同样必须通过主体段落发展来实现。


  一般来说,一篇议论文必须包含至少两个主体段。每个主体段都必须有明确的主题句“topic sentence”和若干支持句“supporting sentences”。他们共同组成文章的理由段,对全文的论点提供理由支持。朗阁海外考试研究中心建议初学者在练习议论文写作时,必须遵循理由段发展的几个简单原则,这对迅速完成理由段、构建连贯和理由充分的议论文大有帮助。这几个简单原则包括:


  1. Write a topic sentence for each paragraph you plan to write. Each topic sentence should relate to your thesis statement and introduce what the paragraph will be about. If you find that the topics you want to discuss do not support the thesis statement you have written, revise your thesis statement or reconsider your topic sentences.
  (每个主体段都必须有一个明确的主题句)


  2. Write ideas that support your topic sentences. The topic sentence for each paragraph tells the reader what the paragraph will be about. The ideas stated in the rest of the paragraph should all relate to the topic sentence.
  (支持句必须围绕主题句展开)


  根据第2条的原则,我们来看看下面这个主体段:


  Hobbies are important for many reasons. First, a hobby can be educational. For example, if the hobby is stamp collecting, the person can learn about the countries of the world and even some of their history. Second, engaging in a hobby can lead to meeting other people with the same interests. A person can also meet other people by going to the school. Third, a person's free time is being used in a positive way. The person has no time to be bored or get into mischief while engaged in the hobby. Finally, some hobbies can lead to a future job. A person who enjoys a hobby-related job is more satisfied with life.


  这段话的topic sentence很明显-“Hobbies are important for many reasons”,之后的支持句从三方面阐述hobby的重要性(first, second, third),但段中这句话"A person can also meet other people by going the school"与hobby重要的原因没有关系,因此削弱了整个段落的连贯性与统一性,应该被去掉。


  3. Add details. To write a more fully developed paragraph, you need to add details to your supporting ideas. Your details can be facts, examples, personal experiences, or descriptions.
  (需要用多种方式提供细节展开段落)


  根据第3条的原则,我们来看下面这个段落:


  The Smithsonian Institution is worth visiting for a number of reasons. The Smithsonian Institution comprises various museums that offer something for everyone. These museums include the National Museum of History and Technology, the National Aeronautics and Space Museum, the National Collection of Fine Arts, the National Museum of Natural History, and several others. A person can do more than just look at the exhibits. For example, in the insect zoo at the National Museum of Natural History, anyone who so desires can handle some of the exhibits. The museums provide unforgettable experiences. In climbing through the Skylab exhibit at the National Aeronautics and Space Museum, I was able to imagine what it would be like to be an astronaut in space. Movies shown at regular intervals aid in building an appreciation of our world. In the National Aeronautics and Space Museum, there is a theater that has a large screen. When the movie is shown, it gives the viewer the feeling that he or she is in the movie itself, either floating above the Earth in a hot-air balloon or hang gliding over cliffs.


  这是一个成功的主题段,请注意这段话段落细节展开的几种形式-提供事实、举例、个人经历和描述。我们把这个段落拆分后进行分析:
  Topic sentence
  (主题句) The Smithsonian Institution is worth visiting for a number of reasons.
  Supporting idea 1
  (支持理由1) The Smithsonian Institution comprises various museums that offer something for everyone.
  Details – facts
  (细节展开-提供事实) These museums include the National Museum of History and Technology, the National Aeronautics and Space Museum, the National Collection of Fine Arts, the National Museum of Natural History, and several others.
  Supporting idea 2
  (支持理由2) A person can do more than just look at the exhibits.
  Details – examples
  (细节展开-举例) For example, in the insect zoo at the National Museum of Natural History, anyone who so desires can handle some of the exhibits.
  Supporting idea 3
  (支持理由3) The museums provide unforgettable experiences.
  Details – personal experience
  (细节展开-个人经历) In climbing through the Skylab exhibit at the National Aeronautics and Space Museum, I was able to imagine what it would be like to be an astronaut in space.
  Supporting idea 4
  (支持理由4) Movies shown at regular intervals aid in building an appreciation of our world.
  Details – description
  (细节展开-描述) In the National Aeronautics and Space Museum, there is a theater that has a large screen. When the movie is shown, it gives the viewer the feeling that he or she is in the movie itself, either floating above the Earth in a hot-air balloon or hang gliding over cliffs.

相关新闻 更多推荐

利用雅思阅读写雅思写作,划算! 今日朗阁:雅思写作不会写没关系,分数低没关系,慢慢从雅思阅读中积累经验,就好了。... 得分者必读:雅思写作秘诀 在雅思考试的四大评分标准中,除了TASKACHIEVEMENT一项着重考察文章的内容和论证能力外,其余三项都着重考察考生的英文表达能力.其... 雅思子写作其中得分句式表达 朗阁雅思培训学校为方便雅思考生考试,特为考生们整理出七种雅思写作表达句式,其中涉及到了表示原因、坏处、现状等常见的雅思写作... 雅思大作文得分攻略(上) 雅思大作文主体段落决定了该题目的分数,相比,各大烤鸭也了解,大作文主体段落扩展有很多方法,比如列举法、举例法、对比法、因果法... 雅思大作文攻略(下) 在上一章节中我们已经系统介绍了举例法和因果法的使用要领,在接下来的章节中,朗阁海外考试研究中心写作组的专家将和大家继续探讨... 雅思得分,审题第一步 朗阁济南雅思培训学校的专家在对考生的分数调查中发现,经常会出现一些"偏科"的学生,往往听力或者阅读能得9分,写作却突破不了7分.... 雅思写作如何拿分 熟悉雅思考试的同学一般都清楚,雅思写作部分有2篇作文,要求考生在一小时内完成至少400字的写作任务.时间短,任务重,不少考生因未... 雅思写作技巧:关联词的妙用 众所周知,关联词连接着前后两个句子,让文章更加完整和通顺.在雅思写作考试中,关联词更是起着至关重要的作用.熟悉这些常用的关联...

立即获取

稍后会有专业老师给您回电,请保持
电话畅通

关注我们