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案例解析雅思图表作文的本质

时间:2012-10-08 10:03  作者:济南朗阁  来源:济南雅思培训学校  

摘要:有很多同学看见图表作文会感到恐惧,其实图表作文说穿了就是看图说话,只要你把文章要表达的总的趋势,极值,还有几个图表之间的比较写清楚就可以了.朗阁海外考试研究中心分析认为,考生们只要掌握了以下知识,雅思小作文便马上迎刃而解

  有很多同学看见图表作文会感到恐惧,其实图表作文说穿了就是看图说话,只要你把文章要表达的总的趋势,极值,还有几个图表之间的比较写清楚就可以了。朗阁海外考试研究中心分析认为,考生们只要掌握了以下知识,雅思小作文便马上迎刃而解。


  雅思图表作文的本质:对比对照(比较结构句型)


  趋势描述(上升,下降):
  上升的动词:increase, rise, surge, enlarge, swell, soar, enhance, climb, jump, augment, go up
  下降的动词:decrease, descend, decline, drop, shrink, diminish, dwindle, taper
  形容动词的副词:considerably, sharply, remarkably, dramatically, greatly, drastically, extremely, steadily, substantially, continually, continuously, moderately, respectively, generally, slightly, mainly, strikingly


  Example:
  Stock prices have been extremely volatile They climbed steadily in the 1950’s, reached a peak in 1966, and then fluctuated up and down until 1973, when they fell sharply. Stock prices had recovered substantially by the early 1980s when a major stock market boom again, sending to Dow Jones Industry Average (DJIA) to a peak of 2722 on August 25,1987. After a 17% decline over the next month and a half, the stock market experienced the worst one-day drop in its entire history on “Black Monday”, October 19, 1987, when the DJIA fell by more than 500 points, a 22% decline.


  句型变化:
  1. 主体做主语+increase
  Between 1940 and 1985 the proportion of the elderly people increased remarkably from about 17% in Sweden and 9% in the USA to 13% and 15% respectively.
  2. 年代做主语+saw + increase
  The period from 1940 to 1985 saw a generally steady increase in the proportion of …
  3. 地点做主语+experienced +increase
  Both the USA and Sweden experienced an alarming/moderately surge/increase in the proportion of…


  分析:
  1. 写作时首段应是命题的改写
  2. 主体段应描写大的特征或对大趋势的概括(关键数据支持)
  3. 关键数据即起点终点坐标,最大最小值,偶尔会用交点坐标,部分特征拐点坐标。


  注意点:
  1. 句子的衔接和句子结构的变化
  2. 分词和比较结构的使用
  3. 从句的使用
  4. 整篇文章万万不可主观推理分析,否则扣分
  5. 首段是信息段,不能照抄命题,只能改写命题,概括主要的研究内容,研究对象,时间和地点。如果是两个图,必须分开写,句型常用while...shows…, …illustrate …(剑五P52, 剑四P100, 剑四P54)


  Example:
  (首段)The three lines in the chart each show the changes in the proportion of the elderly people to the population of the USA, Sweden and Japan from 1940 till today. Also the chart gives predicted date for the trends.
  (主体段)Since 1940, the proportion in the USA has been slightly higher than that in Sweden at any given time, while that in Japan was always the smallest. Specially, the figures for the three countries in 1940 were 9%, 7%, 5% respectively. The changes in the proportion in the USA and Sweden are featured mainly by steady increase although since 1980 the USA experienced somewhat declines. By contrast Japan did not see increase substantially, sending it to a peak of 5% in 2007, the same as in 1940. According to the prediction since 2000, the upward trends will have been obvious in the three countries, but in Japan will soar at the fastest speed. Till/By 2040 the figure will have reached 27%, compared with 25% in the USA and 23% in Sweden.


  另一篇范文,主要展示最值的表达:
  In the term of the length of the Underground Railway System (URS), that in London ranks first among the six in that it reaches 394km, almost 36 times longer than that in Kyoto, the shortest. The second longest is in Paris (199km).
  Focusing on the open date, we see that once again London URS was strikingly earlier than all other counterparts. Put it accurately, London opened the URS as early as in1863, 37 years earlier than that in Paris. By contrast, the youngest is LA who did not start to run URS until 2001.
  说明文注重语言的流畅,简洁。在图表作文中,不追求词藻的华丽,只追求表达的清楚。


  注意点:
  1. 没有必要写出每条信息,要辨别关键特征
  2. 段落划分要合理(得分点)
  3. 衔接和过渡词很重要


  Example: 剑五P75
  To be located in the town centre, S2 is in the town centre, a non-traffic zone. As result, it is only accessible by the railway whereas the main roads are unavailable. Moreover, it is hemmed out the houses, meaning it’s convenient for the dweller s to do some shopping. In addition, it is closer to the south industry but far away from the north.
  Unlike S2, S1 will be set in the countryside, where both the railway and main roads are ready. But the 44000 people from Bransdon and Crandson find it not easy to reach S1, although it is connected by the railway with Crandson. Furthermore, this site is far away from the two industry areas. However, it is convenient for those who live in Hindo.
  To sum up, the two sites are different in many aspects/ways.


  小结:
  1. 柱状图可变成线性图;
  2. 饼状图可变成表格图(表格题中,在对象的旁边标识出上升,下降,或有变化的箭头,之后,将同类上升的写一段,下降的写一段,不稳定的单列一段);
  3. 流程示意图及步骤图(使用总分结构,着重对比和过程的描述,关键词firstly, secondly, thirdly, finally, to begin with, and then, further more…)

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