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时间:2019-07-08 08:28  作者:jnlongre  来源:未知  


GRE Test Review (Pool)   
Section:VERBAL- Reading Comprehension  
Arranger: Sherry Zhang
Date: 07/05/2019
Pool Number:
Passage 8
An alarming number of Mediterranean monk seals, an endangered species, have recently died. Postmortem analysis showed the presence of an as yet unidentified virus, as well as evidence of a know bacterial toxin. Seawater samples from the area where the seals died did contain unusually high concentrations of the toxic bacterium. Therefore, although both viruses and bacterial toxins can kill seals, it is more likely that these deaths were the result of the bacterial toxin. 
Which of the following, if true, provides additional evidence to support the conclusion?
A. Viruses are much more difficult to identify in postmortem analysis than bacteria are. 
B. Mediterranean monk seals are the only species of seal in the area where the bacterium was found.
C. The bacterium is almost always present in the water in at least small concentrations. 
D. Nearly all the recent deaths were among adult seals, but young seals are far more susceptible to viruses than are adult seals.
E. Several years ago, a large number of monk seals died in the same area as a result of exposure to a different bacterial toxin. 
Analysis 答案:D
年度考频:2019.01.04, 2019.01.27, 2019.02.22, 2019. 03.02, 2019.06.02, 2018年考过一次
Pool Number:
Passage 11
Before feminist literary criticism emerged in the 1970s, the nineteenth-century United States writer Fanny Fern was regarded by most critics (when considered at all) as a prototype of weepy sentimentalism—a pious, insipid icon of conventional American culture. Feminist reclamations of Fern, by contrast, emphasize her nonsentimental qualities, particularly her sharply humorous social criticism. Most feminist scholars find it difficult to reconcile Fern’s sardonic social critiques with her effusive celebrations of many conventional values. Attempting to resolve this contradiction, Harris concludes that Fern employed flowery rhetoric strategically to disguise her subversive goals beneath apparent conventionality. However, Tompkins proposes an alternative view of sentimentality itself, suggesting that sentimental writing could serve radical, rather than only conservative ends by swaying readers emotionally, moving them to embrace social change. 
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
1. The passage suggests which of the following about the contradiction mentioned in the highlighted sentence?

A. It was not generally addressed by critics before the 1970s.

B. It is apparent in only a small number of Ferns writings.

C. It has troubled many feminist critics who study Fern. 
2. It can be inferred from the passage that Tompkins would be most likely to agree with which of the following about the critics mentioned in the passage? 
A. They accurately characterize the overall result Fern is aiming to achieve.

B. They are not as dismissive of Fern as some feminist critics have suggested. 
C. They exaggerate the extent to which Fern intended her writing to serve a social purpose. 
D. They wrongly assume that sentimental must be a pejorative term.
E. They fail to recognize the role that sentimental rhetoric plays to reader’s emotions. 
Analysis 答案:AC  D
年度考频:2019.01.19, 2019.04.04,2019.07.05, 2018年考过三次
Pool Number:
Passage  33
A primary value in early twentieth-century Modernist architectural theory was that of “truth to materials”, that is, it was essential that a building’s design express the “natural” character of the building materials. This emphasis would have puzzled the architects of the Italian Renaissance (sixteenth century), a period widely regarded as the apex of architectural achievement, for Renaissance architects’ designs were determined only minimally by the materials employed. The diversity of Italy’s natural resources provided Renaissance architects with a wide variety of building materials. The builders of the Pitti Palace (1558-1570) used great blocks of Tuscan stone, just as Etruscans living in the same part of Italy had done some twenty centuries earlier. Had the Florentine Renaissance builders aped the Etruscan style, it might be said that their materials determined their style, since Etruscan style matched the massive, stark, solid character of the stone. But these same materials, which so suited the massive Etruscan style, were effectively used by the Florentine Renaissance to create the most delicate and graceful of styles.
A similar example of identical materials used in contrasting styles characterizes the treatment of Roman travertine marble. When Baroque architects of seventeenth-century Rome desired a massive and solid monumental effect, they turned to travertine marble, whose “natural effect” is, indeed, that of spacious breadth and lofty, smoothly rounded surfaces. Yet during the Renaissance, this same material had been used against its “nature,” in the Florentine tradition of sharply carved detail. Italian Renaissance architecture was shaped less by the “nature” of the materials at hand than by the artistic milieu of Renaissance Italy, which included painting and sculpture as well as architecture. While Roman travertine marble may have lent itself to fine carving, the Florentine passion for fine detail is no less marked in Florentine Renaissance painting than in Florentine Renaissance architecture. Similarly, in the next century, the emphasis on shading and corporeal density in Baroque painting mirrored the use of Roman travertine marble in Baroque architecture to create broad shadow and powerful masses.
The ingenuity of Renaissance architects extended beyond merely using a material in a way not suggested by its outward natural appearance. If they conceived a design that called for a certain material either too expensive or difficult to work with, they made no scruple about imitating that material. Their marbles and their stones are often actually painted stucco. When the blocks of masonry with which they built were not in scale with the projected scheme, the real joints were concealed and false ones introduced. Nor were these practices confined, as some scholars insist, to the later and supposedly decadent phases of the art. Material, then, was utterly subservient to style.
1. The passage is primarily concerned with
A. explaining the differences in quality among different kinds of building materials
B. discussing the differences among Etruscan, Florentine Renaissance, and Roman Baroque architecture
C. describing how different materials influenced architecture in different cities
D. describing the manner in which Renaissance architects often resorted to artificial materials and illusionistic effects
E. demonstrating the attitude of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Italian architects toward the use of building materials 
E. demonstrating the attitude of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Italian architects towards the use of building materials.
2. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes that which of the following is true of painting and architecture of the Baroque era?
A. Both emphasize the “natural” use of materials.
B. Both are derived from the Florentine Renaissance style.
C. Both have been overlooked by twentieth-century Modernists.
D. They have certain visual features in common.E. They illustrate the degeneration of a style. 
E. They illustrate the degeneration of a style.
3. The author’s mention of Florentine Renaissance painting serves in the context of the passage to support which of the following assertions?
A. The constraints that operate in architecture are different from those that operate in painting
B. Florentine architectural style was not determined by the nature of the available marble.
C. The Florentine Renaissance period was a period in which the other arts achieved the same distinction as did architecture.
D. Technical advances in all of the arts of the Florentine Renaissance determined the stylistic qualities of those arts.
E. Native preferences of style do not manifest themselves in the same ways in different arts.
4. The passage suggests which of the following about the cited “scholars”?
A. They believe that a decadent phase is characteristic of any significant artistic movement.
B. They reject the popular view of the Renaissance as the apex of architectural achievement.
C. They believe that a vigorous and healthy architecture would not usually employ false surfaces or imitation building materials.
D. They represent the mainstream in critical and historical thought about the Florentine Renaissance.
E. They have focused on such technical matters as the cost of building materials rather than on artistic concerns.
Analysis 答案:EDCC
文科,建筑学类。讲文艺复兴时期的建筑风格不太受建筑材料的影响,这与二十世纪的风格不同;巴洛克风格更加注重nature。长文章,题目中多考细节题。注意第三题D项中的distinction是一词多义,有“卓越”之意,对应原文的fine detail。第四题注意scholar表示身份,读时应留意其文章位置便于定位。
年度考频:  2019.01.19, 2019.02.22, 2019.05.25, 2018考过一次
Pool Number:
Passage 38
Astronomers who study planet formation once believed that comets—because they remain mostly in the distant Oort cloud, where temperatures are close to absolute zero—must be pristine relics of the material that formed the outer planets. The conceptual shift away from seeing comets as pristine relics began in the 1970s, when laboratory simulations revealed there was sufficient ultraviolet radiation reaching comets to darken their surfaces and there were sufficient cosmic rays to alter chemical bonds or even molecular structure near the surface. Nevertheless, astronomers still believed that when a comet approached the Sun—where they could study it—the Sun’s intense heat would remove the corrupted surface layer, exposing the interior. About the same time, though, scientists realized comets might contain decaying radioactive isotopes that could have warmed cometary interiors to temperatures that caused the interiors to evolve.
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
1. According to the passage, astronomers recognize which of the following as being liable to cause changes to comets?
A. Cosmic rays
B. Radioactive decay
C. Ultraviolet radiation
2. According to the passage, astronomers’ belief that comets are pristine relics was
A. overturned by analysis of what happens when comets approach the Sun
B. supported by what observations revealed about the composition of the outer planets
C. based on consideration of the conditions that prevail where comets are located
Analysis 答案:ABC C
Pool Number:
Passage 59
Recent studies of ancient Maya water management have found that the urban architecture of some cities was used to divert rainfall runoff into gravity-fed systems of interconnected reservoirs. In the central and southern May Lowlands, this kind of water control was necessary to support large populations throughout the year due to the scarcity of perennial surface water and the seasonal availability of rainfall. Some scholars argue that the concentration of water within the urban core of these sites provided a centralized source of political authority for Maya elites based largely on controlled water access. Such an argument is plausible, however, it is less useful for understanding the sociopolitical implications of water use and control in other, water-rich parts of the Maya region.
1. The author of the passage implies which of the following about the political importance of the type of urban water management system described in the passage?
A. Because the system was centralized, it allowed political control over a widely scattered population.
B. The knowledge required to design and maintain the system became the pretext for Maya elites’ political authority.
C. By selectively limiting access to water, Maya elites used the system to curb challenges to their authority
D. The system is not sufficient to explain the sources of centralized political power in all parts of the Maya region
E. The system’s continued maintenance required political authorities to exert control over an increasing proportion of economic resources.
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
2. According to the passage, which of the following is true of the water management systems in the central and southern Maya Lowlands?
A. They were implemented in part because of the prevailing pattern of rainfall.
B. They were an integral part of lowland cities’ architecture.
C. They were needed because of insufficient resources such as ponds, rivers and lakes in the lowlands.
Analysis 答案:D  ABC
考频:2019.1.19, 2019.3.17, 2019.06.02 ; 2018年5次
Pool Number:
Passage 60
Ralph Ellison was passionately interested in visual arts. He immersed himself in Harlem’s art scene in the 1930s, even apprenticing with sculptor Richmond Barthe for a time. Yet he was wary of projects aiming to provide a visual rendering of his novel Invisible Man. He reluctantly allowed Franklin Library to publish two illustrated versions of the novel but found the results disappointing and repeatedly rejected proposed film versions of the book. Despite his involvement in visual arts, Ellison insisted that only language could capture the complexity of American identity. This complexity consisted of the tension arising from the collision of the United States’ written ideals, as outlined in the founding documents, and the historical and contemporary experience molding the national consciousness.
1. It can be inferred that the author mentions Ellison’s apprenticeship with Richmond Barthe primarily in order to
A. show that Ellison drew upon some aspects of the visual arts in developing his ideas for Invisible Man
B. show that Ellison’s claim for the superiority of the language drive from his experience with other are forms
C. establish that Ellison had experience with an art form that interested many leading figures of the 1930s Harlem art scene
D. suggest that in the 1930s the Harlem art scene provided an environment in which artists were likely to work in several media
E. qualify Ellison’s reservations about visual renderings of his work by showing that he was not indifferent to visual art
2. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about the “tension”? 
A. It partly resulted from social injustices that Ellison worked to alleviate.
B. It came to Ellison’s attention partly as a result of his experience with proposed film versions of Invisible Man.
C. Ellison thought that it could not be adequately represented by sculpture.
D. Ellison believed that it arose from contradictions within the United States’ founding ideals.
E. Ellison felt that it was an issue that could not adequately be addressed through the depiction of fictional characters.
文学评论。Ralph Ellison是visual art的忠实拥趸,却在其小说中避免过多的visual的描写,不同意给书配插画或者拍成电影。他认为只有语言才能描绘出他想要表达的东西。两道题目都是推断题结合举例目的题,第一题的E项用到了双重否定,值得注意,比较容易错。
考频:2019.3.18,2019.06.02, 2018年考过一次
Background Info (From Wikipedia)
Ralph Waldo Ellison (March 1, 1913–April 16, 1994) was an African-American writer. He was born in Oklahoma and studied at the Tuskegee Institute.
Ellison is most famous for writing Invisible Man, a novel about racism and African American identity. The narrator of the book calls himself an invisible man because people refuse to see him for who he really is. Invisible Man won a National Book Award and is still read today by many students and scholars.
Besides Invisible Man, Ellison wrote many essays. He was very interested in music, especially jazz. He started a second novel, called Juneteenth, but never finished it.
Pool Number:
Passage 66
In recent decades, scholars of American literature have skillfully revealed authors’ simultaneous accommodation and resistance to an increasingly commercialized, capitalized environment during the early nineteenth century. Historians of the period have not, however, fully exploited literary criticism, due to the disciplinary boundaries that mark contemporary academic research. Few historians have extensive training in critical theory and its specialized languages, and the sheer volume of work in early American history and literature challenges anyone who would master either field, much less both. Moreover, historians study people across the nation, but much literary scholarship called “American” actually examines works produced in northeastern states. And historians usually study the operations of capitalism in its details, while literary critics produce a generalized picture of literary commodification.
1. As discussed in the passage, the literary scholars and the historians differ in which of the following ways? 
A. the amount of scholarship that they produce
B. the nature of their geographic focus
C. the extent to which they are critical of early capitalism
D. the extent to which they are interested in interdisciplinary study
E. The extent to which they restrict their focus to a particular time period
2. The passage cites which of the following as a reason for historians’ failure to fully exploit literary criticism? 
A. historians’ overly thematic approach to literature
B. historians’ conservative notion of what constitutes literature
C. historian’s lack of interest in critical theory
D. the distinctive nature of much literary criticism
E. the ahistorical quality of much literary criticism
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
3. The passage cites which of the following as reasons for historians’ failure to fully exploit literary criticism?
A. The amount of scholarship involved
B. The distinctive nature of literary criticism
C. The ahistorical quality of much literary criticism
Analysis 答案:BD  AB
文学评论类,讲学者和历史学家对美国文学评论的看法。注意文中的逻辑关系词,如due to, however,moreover等等。第三题是新题,考察细节。
Pool Number:
Passage 87
What accounts for the low-lying, flat surface of Mars’s north? On Earth’s surface, higher- and lower-lying areas have different types of crust: one, thin and dense, is pulled toward Earth’s center more strongly by gravity, and the planet’s water naturally comes to sit over it, creating oceans. The processes that generate this oceanic crust drive plate tectonics.
Is Mars’s north similarly characterized by a sort of crust different from other areas of the planet? Some researchers do see signs of tectonic activity surrounding the northern basin that suggest that it was created through the formation of new crust, like ocean basins on Earth. However, McGill points to Northern bedrock structures that predate the features said to mark the start of the tectonic process. McGill instead believes that through some novel mechanism the ancient surface sank to its current depth as a single unit. This would explain why features around the basin’s edge, which would have formed as the surface dropped, seem to be younger than structures at its floor.
The third possibility is that the northern lowlands result from impacts. Some researchers suggest they formed as a series of big overlapping impact craters. Others arguing that the odds against such a pattern of impacts are large, postulate a single event-the impact of an object bigger than any asteroid the solar system now contains.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to 
A. explore an analogy between aspects of the geology of Mars and the geology of Earth
B. describe how a certain feature of Mars’s surface formed
C. point out the effect that new data has had on a scientific investigation
D. summarize potential explanations of a large-scale geological feature
E. present the rationale for a scientist’s theory and expose some of its weakness
2. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about geological features on Earth
A. the relative elevation of the lowest-lying regions of the crust arises in part from forces generated within the planet
B. the difference in elevation between the ocean basins and their surroundings is greater than the difference between Mars’s northern basin and its surroundings
C. the formation of low-lying areas proceeds by a different process than the one that created Mars’s northern basin
D. the weight of the oceans does not affect the depth of the ocean basins
E. the proportions of the crust that is oceanic crust is increasing
3. As presented in the passage, McGill’s account of the formation of Mars’s northern basin differs from the other mentioned in that it alone
A. explains the formation of certain northern bedrock features
B. does not specify the force that caused the northern basin to be lower than its surroundings
C. takes the northern basin to be a landform that is not analogous to any found on Earth
D. denies that features around the northern basin are the result of tectonic activity
E. attributes the creation of the northern lowlands to processes occurring within the planet
Analysis 答案:DAB
Pool Number:
Passage 105
Writing about nineteenth-century women’s travel writing, Lila Harper notes that the four women she discussed used their own names, in contrast with the nineteenth-century female novelists who either published anonymously or used male pseudonyms. The novelists doubtless realized that they were breaking boundaries, whereas three of the four daring, solitary travelers espoused traditional values, eschewing radicalism and women’s movements. Whereas the female novelists criticized their society, the female travelers seemed content to leave society as it was while accomplishing their own liberation. In other words, they lived a contradiction. For the subjects of Harper’s study, solitude in both the private and public spheres prevailed—a solitude that conferred authority, hitherto a male prerogative, but that also precluded any collective action or female solidarity.
1. Which of the following best characterizes the “contradiction” that the author refers to?
A. The subjects of Harper’s study enjoyed solitude, and yet as travelers they were often among people.
B. Nineteenth-century travel writers used their own names, but nineteenth-century novelists used pseudonyms.
C. Women’s movements in the nineteenth-century were not very radical in comparison with those of the twentieth-century.
D. Nineteenth-century female novelists thought they were breaking boundaries, but it was the nineteenth-century women who traveled alone who were really doing so.
E. While traveling alone in the nineteenth-century was considered a radical act for a woman, the nineteenth-century solitary female travelers generally held conventional views.
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
2. According to the passage, solitude had which of the following effects for the nineteenth century female travelers?
A. It conferred an authority typically enjoyed only by men.
B. It prevented formation of alliances with other women.
C. It relieved peer pressure to conform to traditional values.
Analysis 答案:E  AB
文学评论,讲女性旅行游记,带有传统色彩,又有矛盾体现。第一题不太好定位,对矛盾词“contradiction”要有既视感。第二题不定项,注意A项的“only by men”在最后一句中出现。
Pool Number:
Passage 130
Some archaeologists speculate that the Americas might have been initially colonized between 40,000 and 25,000 years ago. However, to support this theory it is necessary to explain the absence of generally accepted habitation sites for that time interval in what is now the United States. Australia, which has a smaller land area than the United States, has many such sites, supporting the generally accepted claim that the continent was colonized by humans at least 40,000 years ago. Australia is less densely populated (resulting in lower chances of discovering sites) and with its overall greater aridity would have presented conditions less favorable for hunter-gatherer occupation. Proportionally, at least as much land area has been lost from the coastal regions of Australia because of postglacial sea-level rise as in the United States, so any coastal archaeological record in Australia should have been depleted about as much as a coastal record in the United States. Since there are so many resource-rich rivers leading inland from the United States coastlines, it seems implausible that a growing population of humans would have confined itself to coasts for thousands of years. If inhabitants were present 25,000 years ago, the chances of their appearing in the archaeological record would seem to be greater than for Australia.
1. The passage is primarily concerned with doing which of the following?
A. presenting an objection to a claim
B. accounting for an apparent anomaly
C. outlining an alternative interpretation
D. correcting a particular misconception
E. questioning the validity of a comparison
2. The author of the passage implies which of the following about 25,000 years ago?
A. The coastline of the region that is now the United States is longer than it was 40,000 years ago.
B. Rivers in what is now the United States were numerous than they are now.
C. Australia was less densely populated at that time than was the region that is now the United States.
D. Australia’s climate was significantly drier than it is now.
E. Global sea level was lower than it is now.
3. The author of the passage implies that, in what is now the United States, archaeological evidence of inhabitation in the period from 40,000 to 25,000 years ago is lacking because that region
A. had its oldest habitation sites inundated following a postglacial rise in sea level.
B. has many resource-rich rivers that facilitated the dispersal of early inhabitants from an initial concentration in coastal areas.
C. was sparsely populated until about 25,000 years ago.
D. was colonized less than 25,000 years ago.
E. was inhabited only by hunter-gatherers until 25,000 years ago.
Analysis 答案:E A
社会科学类, 讲日本纺织工业的工人的组成,这个研究是有偏差的,不应该只考虑10-25岁的乡村女性,还要考虑不同分支。注意代表身份的名词的位置。近年来此篇第一次被考到。
年度考频: 2019.03.23, 2019.06.02, 2018年考过两次
Pool Number:
Passage 216
Favorable environments do not necessarily lead to the occurrence of plant cultivation. South China is warmer and moister than North China and the Yangtze Basin, with wild rice and highly abundant natural resources. Yet archaeological data indicate that cereal cultivation did not occur in this region until approximately 7,000 to 6,500 years ago. This cultivation was likely a result of cultural contact with and expansion from the Yangtze Basin. Clearly, environmental factors were important for the occurrence of cultivation in China, but were not the absolute determining factors. While incipient cultivation might occur in areas of relatively abundant resources, it may not occur in areas of very abundant resources, such as South China, where foraging might be a more efficient way of life.
1. The author implies which of the following about natural resources in South China prior to 6,500 years ago?
A. Their abundance may have actually served to discourage the development of plant cultivation.
B. They were not as abundant as most archaeologists have maintained.
C. They led indirectly to cultural contact with peoples from the Yangtze Basin.
D. Their importance has been downplayed by scholars studying the beginnings of plant cultivation in South China.
E. They had little influence on the types of plants that were eventually cultivated in South China.
2. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about plant cultivation in the Yangtze Basin?
A. It occurred in spite of an unfavorable climate.
B. It occurred prior to 6,500 years ago.
C. It occurred somewhat later than it occurred in North China.
D. It occurred largely because of the abundance of wild rice in the region.
E. It occurred as a result of cultural contact with South China.
Analysis 答案:AB
RECAP 此次GRE阅读考试题库所中机经较多,出现较多2019.6.2和3.17的考题。建议大家多看考题回顾,多做刚考完的题,极大可能命中。

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